The Past Tense              過去形

Updated: Mar 19

Hello Everyone, I hope you are all doing well today. Last week I discussed the present tense and its uses in English. Today we are going to take a look at the past tense.

みなさん、こんにちは!元気ですか?先週、現在形と英語での使い方を話しました。今日は過去形を見ていきましょう。


In a nut shell the past tense works to tell about things that have happened in the past. Like the present tense there are four different parts to the past tense. Let’s take a quick look at these and a few examples that I hope can clarify what is being written here.

単純に説明すると、過去形は過去に起こったことを話す時に使います。現在形みたいに、4つの種類に分けられます。こちらを見ながらいくつかの例を見ていきましょう。


So let's get started!

では、始めよう!

First off we have the past simple tense.

Past Simple* - This tense is used to describe events that have happened in the past.

まず、単純過去形を見ましょう。

単純過去形* -過去に起こった起きごとを表す時。


Affirmative: (add -ed or –d to the base form of the verb)

I stopped by my friends house yesterday.

Negative: (add did not or didn't before the base form)

I didn’t play soccer as a child.

Question: (add did plus subject before the base form)

Did the man smile while walking down the aisle with his daughter?

*Be aware this is the general rule for verbs that are not irregular. I’d like to take a look at irregular verbs at some point in the near future.

*注意すること:不規則動詞以外の動詞に普段適切するルールです。不規則動詞はまた後日に見ていきたいと思います。



Next let's move on to the past continuous tense."There are a few uses of the past continuous that we should look at first. It is used for interrupted past actions. As well as when a time expression is not given, it can indicate gradual development that took place in the past. In addition, it can express an action, which began before that time and probably continued after it." - ITTT

次は過去進行形です。

「過去進行形はいくつかの使い方があります。一つは、過去にあったことの途中に何かが起こった時。また、過去進行形が時間が示されていなくても、過去に何かが徐々に起こっていたことも表します。そして、この時制はある時間の前に始まった行動がその時間のあとになっても続けられていることを表すことができます。


Affirmative: (subject + was/were + verb+ing)

While I was walking, a cat followed me.


Negative: (subject + was/were + not + verb+ing)

They were not happy waiting for the meal.


Question: (was/were + subject + verb+ing)

Was she jumping on the couch a few moments ago?


Now let's look at the past perfect tense- "The past equivalent of the present perfect, e.g. When she came inside the meal had started. So you should see that all of the past perfect verbs represent actions that occurred before other actions in the past. Thus we can say the past perfect is’ the past in the past’, or the past viewed from another past viewpoint." -ITTT

三つ目は過去完了形です。

「健在完了形の過去形用のものです。例:When she came inside the meal had started. ここでは、過去完了動詞は過去に起こったできごとの前の行動を示しています。違う言い方ですと、「過去からみた過去の話」、または「過去の視点からの過去の話」。-ITTT


Affirmative: (subject + had + past participle)

When I sat down to eat my hotdog I found out I had forgotten to put ketchup on.

Negative: (subject + had+ not + past participle)

After we returned home, she had not been able to call the office yet.

Question: (had + subject + past participle)

Had he seen the movie when he started to write his report?


And finally we have the past perfect continuous tense- "The past perfect continuous certainly isn't the most frequently used (or taught) tense in the English language but it does have one major use: To talk about longer actions or situations in the past that had been going on continuously up to the past moment that we are thinking about. We don't know or are not concerned with whether or not it continued after." -ITTT

最後に、過去完了進行形をみましょう。

「この時制は頻繁に使われていないのですが、こう言う時によく使われます:過去にあったある時点までに長く行なっていた行動または状況。その時点のあとに続いたかは特に知る必要はない。」-ITTT


Affirmative: (subject + had + been + verb+ing)

He had been smiling when Mom gave him his gift.

Negative: (subject + had+ not + been + verb+ing)

They had not been standing when the earthquake hit.

Question: (had + subject + been + verb+ing)

Had she been eating when the phone rang?

And there you go, and the rest is history.

それで以上です。


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